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Want better courses?
just add usability...

By Lisa Neal, Michael Feldstein / August 2006

TYPE: OPINION
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While many online-course development teams bring together experts in the design and development of courses and course components, few include usability-engineering or -testing professionals. This may be due to rushed schedules, inadequate budgets, or a general lack of awareness and understanding as regards the value of usability practices and their impact on e-learning. Rather than argue the benefits of augmenting a team with usability professionals, we suggest that all members of a course-development team receive training in usability fundamentals. The potential benefits include a stronger team and better-designed courses that truly meet learners' needs. We have prepared basic guidelines for bringing usability into the mix.

Usability testing has two parts: strategies for usability engineering that can be applied by course designers early in the development process, and usability testing of completed courses. These practices increase the likelihood that a learner will be able to focus on the task at hand—learning—rather than on how a course is delivered. Just as an instructor has to work hard to overcome the discomfort and distractions of a poorly designed classroom, even well-designed online materials are less compelling when a course is poorly designed, hard to navigate, or inappropriate for the target learner population. A course with poor usability can have measurable negative impact on course completion rates and post-test scores.

Simple techniques may be learned by members of a course development team to help incorporate usability fundamentals. The two that are easiest to learn and most effective—and arguably most fun for a course development team—are personas and heuristic usability testing.

Personas help the members of a development team identify important characteristics of their target learners and design courseware that better meets their needs. After interviewing a handful of prospective learners, the team constructs profiles for imaginary but prototypical learners which are then used during design and testing. The personas consist of relevant characteristics, as well as a few extraneous ones that give each a unique identity.

When the University of Puerto Rico developed their first online program, one of the personas they developed was Maria, a new college student who wanted to major in biology. She was highly motivated but had little computer or Internet expertise. In planning an introductory biology course, many of the design decisions about the course's style, the quantities of text and graphics, and the types of support needed were made to ensure Maria's success.

Another persona was Jorge, who worked in the pharmaceutical industry and wanted to complete his bachelor's degree. He had technology access at work and good technology skills, but poor study skills. While Jorge may respond well to many of the same course-design decisions that work for Maria, their larger needs diverged. While Maria may benefit from an introductory course in the use of the Internet, Jorge may need one on how to be a successful online learner. The designers included features designed to help both types of learners.

The second technique, heuristic usability testing, relies on a set of general principles of usable software design as applied to e-learning. When a group of reviewers look for violations of these principles, they tend to catch a high percentage of problems. Catching these problems before learners do is essential to creating usable courses.

Our guide to adding usability to e-learning development provides practical information on personas and heuristic evaluation. These techniques achieve the best results when they are woven into the culture of a development team, especially over time as experiences are shared among the team to promote best practices.

Please let us know your experiences using these suggestions.



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ADDITIONAL READING

    Michael Feldstein
  1. When Weblogs Can Be Harmful
  2. Informational cascades in online learning
  3. Unbolting the chairs
  4. A call to arms
  5. There's no such thing as a learning object
  6. Designing usable, self-paced e-learning courses
  7. Do you really need reusability?
  8. How to design recyclable learning objects
  9. Ill-served
  10. What's important in a learning content management system
  11. Disaster and opportunity
  12. 'E-Moderating' by Gilly Salmon and 'In Good Company The Secrets to Successful Learning Communities' by Don Cohen and Laurence Prusak
  13. The digital promise
  14. Just "DO IT"
  15. In defense of online learning (and veggie burgers)
  16. Back to the future: what's next after learning objects
  17. What is usable e-learning?
  18. Ignore usability at your peril
  19. Don't Just Teach to the Metrics
  20. E-learning basics: essay: developing your e-learning for your learners
  21. Desperately seeking software simulations
  22. Lisa Neal
  23. Predictions For 2003
  24. "Spot Learning"
  25. Q&A with Saul Carliner
  26. When will e-learning reach a tipping point?
  27. Online learning and fun
  28. Five questions…for Matt DuPlessie
  29. Back to the future
  30. Serious games for serious topics
  31. Five (or six) questions...for Irene McAra-McWilliam
  32. Learner on the Orient Express
  33. In search of simplicity
  34. eLearning and fun
  35. Everything in moderation
  36. The basics of e-learning
  37. Is it live or is it Memorex?
  38. The Value of Voice
  39. Predictions for 2006
  40. Five Questions...for Christopher Dede
  41. Five Questions... for John Seely Brown
  42. Five questions...for Shigeru Miyagawi
  43. "Deep" thoughts
  44. 5 questions... for Richard E. Mayer
  45. How to get students to show up and learn
  46. Q&A
  47. Blended conferences
  48. Designing usable, self-paced e-learning courses
  49. Just "DO IT"
  50. Five questions...
  51. Formative evaluation
  52. Senior service
  53. Blogging to learn and learning to blog
  54. My life as a Wikipedian
  55. Five questions...for Elliott Masie
  56. The stripper and the bogus online degree
  57. Five questions...for Lynn Johnston
  58. Five questions...for Tom Carey
  59. Not all the world's a stage
  60. Five questions...for Karl M. Kapp
  61. Five questions...for Larry Prusack
  62. Five questions...for Seb Schmoller
  63. Do distance and location matter in e-learning?
  64. Why do our K-12 schools remain technology-free?
  65. Music lessons
  66. Learn to apologize for fun and profit
  67. Of web hits and Britney Spears
  68. Advertising or education?
  69. Predictions for 2002
  70. Learning from e-learning
  71. Storytelling at a distance
  72. Q&A with Don Norman
  73. Talk to me
  74. Q&A with Diana Laurillard
  75. Do it yourself
  76. Degrees by mail
  77. Predictions for 2004